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May 3, 2015

2nd day update: 9th International Conference on Typhoid and Invasive NTS disease - Bali, Indonesia

AMR symposium
·         key message is that MDR is an issue with treatment of TF with antibiotic
·         Need for close cooperation to address this problem between clinician and laboratory experts
Genomics and host susceptibility to enteric fever and NTS disease
·         HLA and resistance to enteric fever
o   this is beyond my understanding
o   Key messages:
§  HLA –DRB1+0405 major contributor to resistance
§  May affect antigen presentation
§  T cell response
§  Key individuals in PAHS Salmonella study – Well Come Trust
·         Buddha Basnyat
·         Samir Koirala
·         Sabina Dongol
·         Amit Aryal
·         Abhilasha Karki
Immunity to invasive S infections: lessons from animal models and man
·         System infection progress in distinct phases
o   Innate response
o   Adaptive response (inflammation)
o   T cell dependent acquired immunity
·         “Like a castle cards” – interesting analogy
·         Dynamics of the “in vivo” infection process, immunity and vaccination (thru molecularly tagged or fluorescent)
·         Dispersive infections with intracellular and extracellular phases (analogy - catch me if you can!!)
·         Lessons from Human - vaccines
o   How can we expect the infection with external intervention?
o   Optimize antibody response: isotypes and effector functions
o   Primed cellular response
o   Ab + Cell mediated immunity
o   Epidemiological risk factor vs. susceptibility to disease ( innate immunity and adaptive immunity)
·         Novel insights in host response to understand pathogenesis
o   Typhoid challenge model
o   Waddington et al., CID 2014
o   Cytokines – early response (disappears after 12 hrs)
o   Gene expression after challenge
§  Interferon
o   Cytokines – post response
Typhoid toxin (geno toxin) - Song et al, Nature (2013) absent in non typhoidal Salmonellae
  • Fundamental questions
  • Cytolethal distending toxin + Pertusis toxin

o   Why it causes typhoid fever?
o   Why it only cause disease in humans?
o   a novel toxin and a novel pathway for exotoxin delivery by an intracellular pathogen
o   Salmonella cultured does not produce it??
o   S ty[phi does not survive ……intracellular macrophage
o   Rab 32 / 38 dependent pathway in macrophase  - mechanism of restriction in mice
o   Typhoid organism must have adapted well in humans thru certain sialic acids / glycans
o   Toxin can not affect chimpanzees
o   Deng et al, Cell (in press)

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Anuj in Himalayas

Hi i am connecting disqus with my blog for healthy interaction and open dialogue